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Aviation Safety Events

Threat and Error Management (TEM)


Threat and error management (TEM) is a systems approach to aviation safety originally developed by human factors researchers at the University of Texas. Embraced by airlines worldwide and recognized as an international best practice by, among others, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Joint Aviation Authorities, the International Air Transport Association, the National Air Transport Association, and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, TEM offers an intuitive and flexible approach to practical risk management.  TEM not only offers a framework for understanding and directing human performance in complex operating environments, it also provides aviation professionals — regardless of their organizational function or status — a risk management lexicon that supports a positive safety culture.

Threat and Error Management for Business Aviation is a joint project of the Flight Safety Foundation Corporate Advisory Committee and the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) Safety Committee. The project’s goal is to educate business aviation professionals in the practical application of threat and error management through a three-prong strategy of awareness, outreach, and engagement.  Seminar presentations, informational materials, and appeals to industry boards and safety groups comprise one aspect of executing on this strategy. Additionally, the TEM project steering team is actively encouraging training providers to incorporate TEM into their ground and flight training curricula.

Steering Team Members
 

Peter N. Stein (Chairman), Johnson Controls
Philip Roberts, PAR Travel Tech
Roger Salo, Masco
Douglas Schwartz, ConocoPhillips
John Thomas, Jet Aviation

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Research Materials
 

Threat and Error Management (TEM) in Air Traffic Control, by International Civil Aviation Organization, October 2005 36 pages. [PDF 644K]

Models of Threat, Error, and CRM in Flight Operations by Robert L. Helmreich, James R. Klinect, and John A. Wilhelm 6 pages. [PDF 237K]

Defensive Flying for Pilots: An Introduction to Threat and Error Management by Ashleigh Merritt, Ph.D. & James Klinect, Ph.D., December 2006 20 pages. [PDF 371K]

Threat and Error Management by Capt. Dan Maurino, April 2005 7 pages. [MSWord 81K]

FAA Advisory Circular No: 120-90 — Line Operations Safety Audits 39 pages. [PDF 1.2M]

Presentation
 

Threat and Error Management for Business Aviation, Flight Safety Foundation CAC Workshop Presentation, October 17, 2007, by Durwood Heinrich, Ph.D. [PPT 7.7M]

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