Flight Safety Logo

FSF E-Mail Subscription Service

This is a free service to receive notification of the most current Flight Safety Foundation publications, news releases, seminars and other special events by e-mail. Please provide your contact information and select your areas of interest in the fields below. Fields marked with an * and in red are required.

After submitting this form you will receive a confirmation e-mail - click on the link contained in the e-mail to confirm you are subscribed to our E-mail Subscription Service.

Already a subscriber? Login here to change your status or info.

Email *

First Name *

Last Name *

Job Title *

Company *

Business Type *






Work Phone

Subscribe to:
AeroSafety World
Corporate Aviation Safety Seminar (CASS)
European Aviation Safety Seminar (EASS)
International Air Safety Seminar (IASS)
News Releases
Other Events
Special Announcements and Other Information

Privacy Policy: Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) is committed to using responsibly any private information submitted by visitors to its site: flightsafety.org. The Foundation is the sole owner of information collected on this site and will not sell, share or rent this information to others in ways different from what is disclosed in its privacy statement. For more information, review our entire Privacy Statement.

Aviation Safety Events

Threat and Error Management (TEM)

Threat and error management (TEM) is a systems approach to aviation safety originally developed by human factors researchers at the University of Texas. Embraced by airlines worldwide and recognized as an international best practice by, among others, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Joint Aviation Authorities, the International Air Transport Association, the National Air Transport Association, and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, TEM offers an intuitive and flexible approach to practical risk management.  TEM not only offers a framework for understanding and directing human performance in complex operating environments, it also provides aviation professionals — regardless of their organizational function or status — a risk management lexicon that supports a positive safety culture.

Threat and Error Management for Business Aviation is a joint project of the Flight Safety Foundation Corporate Advisory Committee and the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) Safety Committee. The project’s goal is to educate business aviation professionals in the practical application of threat and error management through a three-prong strategy of awareness, outreach, and engagement.  Seminar presentations, informational materials, and appeals to industry boards and safety groups comprise one aspect of executing on this strategy. Additionally, the TEM project steering team is actively encouraging training providers to incorporate TEM into their ground and flight training curricula.

Steering Team Members

Peter N. Stein (Chairman), Johnson Controls
Philip Roberts, PAR Travel Tech
Roger Salo, Masco
Douglas Schwartz, ConocoPhillips
John Thomas, Jet Aviation

Files that are in .ppt format, which can be viewed, edited and printed with the Microsoft® PowerPoint® application.If you do not have this application, these files can be viewed and printed with Microsoft PowerPoint Viewer, which you can download and install for free on your computer from Microsoft.

Files that are in the .doc format which can be viewed, edited and printed with the Microsoft® Word application.

Adobe® Portable Document Format (PDF) files require a copy of Adobe Reader®. If you do not have a copy of Adobe Reader, you can download and install a free copy from Adobe.

Research Materials

Threat and Error Management (TEM) in Air Traffic Control, by International Civil Aviation Organization, October 2005 36 pages. [PDF 644K]

Models of Threat, Error, and CRM in Flight Operations by Robert L. Helmreich, James R. Klinect, and John A. Wilhelm 6 pages. [PDF 237K]

Defensive Flying for Pilots: An Introduction to Threat and Error Management by Ashleigh Merritt, Ph.D. & James Klinect, Ph.D., December 2006 20 pages. [PDF 371K]

Threat and Error Management by Capt. Dan Maurino, April 2005 7 pages. [MSWord 81K]

FAA Advisory Circular No: 120-90 — Line Operations Safety Audits 39 pages. [PDF 1.2M]


Threat and Error Management for Business Aviation, Flight Safety Foundation CAC Workshop Presentation, October 17, 2007, by Durwood Heinrich, Ph.D. [PPT 7.7M]

Top of page