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Altitude Awareness Programs Can Reduce Altitude Deviations 24 pages. [PDF 170K]
Safety can be jeopardized when aircraft deviate from their assigned altitudes. Carefully implemented altitude awareness programs have been adopted by some airlines. These proven programs focus on improving communications, altitude alerter setting procedure, crew prioritization and task allocation, and ensuring correct altimeter settings.
Special Safety Report: Ice Detection for Turboprop Aircraft. 48 pages.
This Flight Safety Digest reprints the full text of a safety study by the U.K. Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), Ice Detection for Turboprop Aircraft, CAA Paper No. 95007 (appendices 1–4 of the original report have been omitted). This issue is no longer available.
A study suggests that responses to less serious malfunctions are associated with more error-chain symptoms and adverse safety consequences than are responses to serious malfunctions. The findings indicate that flight training must be modified to overcome these tendencies.
This issue of Flight Safety Digest presents milestone fatigue management recommendations and guidelines developed by the special Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Fatigue Countermeasures Task Force for corporate and business operations.
Special Report: Safety of the Air Tour Industry in the United States. 68 pages.
Because of the collision of an airplane and a helicopter performing scenic flights over the Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S., in 1986, and several subsequent accidents, the U.S. air tour industry has become a focus of safety concern. The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated 139 air-tour accidents as well as the regulatory framework for air tours, the effectiveness of past corrective actions and the use of emergency equipment on scenic flights. This resulting report includes 11 safety recommendations designed to prevent air-tour accidents and increase the likelihood of occupant survival in any accidents that do occur. This issue is no longer available.
English is an international language of aviation. But even when pilots and controllers both speak English fluently, there are pitfalls in the nature of language and the ways that language is heard. Subtle miscues can subvert messages that seem clear to the sender. Pilots and controllers must be aware of, and avoid, common types of linguistic misunderstandings. Ultimately, an intelligent voice interface may cut through confusion.
Comparing Accident Reports: Looking Beyond Causes to Identify Recurrent Factors 24 pages. [PDF 125K]
Individual accident reports show what went wrong on a particular occasion. But comparing reports can reveal recurrent factors that need attention. A review of several accident reports raises questions about crew fatigue, the “hurry-up” syndrome and crew interaction.
Studies Suggest Methods for Optimizing Checklist Design and Crew Performance 24 pages. [PDF 116K]
Improved readability, color coding, listing steps
in logical sequence, thoughtful indexing, convenient placement within
the cockpit, attention to human factors and many other principles
will help to ensure that checklists are used as intended.
Creating an operations manual stimulates thought and discussion about optimum procedures, promotes standardization among flight crews and helps avoid ambiguity about responsibilities. The author offers general guidelines for a manual’s content and organization.
New Pressures on Aviation Safety Challenge Safety Management Systems 28 pages. [PDF 196K]
Competitive cost-reduction efforts, capacity bottlenecks and rapidly evolving technology all put a strain on safety margins. Far-reaching management initiatives will have to meet new challenges.
Special Report: Intervention Strategies for the Management of Human Error. 116 pages.
Earl L. Wiener, a recognized expert in aviation human factors, wrote this report for the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Its thesis is that attempts to prevent human error from happening, although worth pursuing, can never be entirely successful; and so a second level of defense — error management — must be studied, understood and implemented. Error management provides various types of checks and balances that divert errors into harmless channels.
This issue is no longer available.
Special Report: Commuter Airline Safety. 100 pages.
The full text of this safety study (report PB94-917004/NTSB/SS-94/02) by the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is printed in this issue of the Flight Safety Digest. (An appendix containing questions asked during site visits to commuter airlines has been omitted.) This issue is no longer available.